Most of this information is freely available somewhere on the web, but it can be very helpful to have everything laid out in a logical, consistent format. I think everyone should read at least one book from the General Investing section.
I also strongly encourage everyone to read about investor behavior, since that's the source of the most costly investing mistakes. It's covered in the better general investing books, but I list a couple of dedicated titles for those who want to delve further into the topic.
The books in the Financial History section are for those who wish to go beyond the basics. A more comprehensive list is available on the Books: Recommendations and Reviews page of the Bogleheads Wiki.
Each one of these titles is worthy of inclusion on its own. Compiled by webmaster Alex Frakt.